Where do Angry Birds Tweet? Income inequality and online hate in Italy.

Abstract. Do spatial socioeconomic features influence a digital behaviour like cyberhate? Our contribution provides an answer to this question showing how high levels of income inequality determine high volumes of hate tweets in Italy. Our findings are robust to potential endogeneity problems of income inequality, as well as to the inclusion of confounding factors and to competing estimation strategies. Additionally, the perception of economic insecurity fuels the occurrence of cyberhate. Also, the transmission of self-interest values along family generations emerges as a risk factor, aligning to existing evidence supporting the role of persistent social norms in shaping people’s attitudes.